Growth and development of a state is closely linked to governance. SKOCH Group has been studying and documenting governance practices of Indian states for nearly two decades. The study reveals that there is a direct correlation between governance and growth and development of a state. The states with effective, efficient and transparent governance have been able to maintain a sustained higher economic expansion and substantially improved the standard of living and well-being of its citizens, while the states with poor governance have remained laggards. Governance is not just about a particular leader, political party or government. The focus of the SKOCH Group’s annual State of Governance study is the common people, especially the marginalised. The study is the most extensive, widespread and exhaustive in the country that covers every nook and corner and remains totally apolitical. Its focus has been to access and highlight the governance initiatives that make a positive difference in the life of a common man. Apart from going into project details, the assessment focuses on the implementation.
Out of thousands of governance projects from across the country, which were assessed as part of the State of Governance 2017 study (up to September), 304 projects were shortlisted for SKOCH Order-of-Merit Award. These projects were extensively studied and reviewed and their grassroots impact were examined and monitored before conferring the honour. Out of this shortlist, 107 projects/ organisations were conferred the Award in different categories. Categories of the Award include Platinum, Gold and Silver. 31 awards were conferred in Platinum category, 35 in Gold and 41 in Silver categories.
The study is based on the entries invited from implementing agencies of the projects. Nominations were invited to different categories from across the country. Each entry was studied, reviewed and weighted for an initial shortlist. Project leaders, champions and architects responsible for the implementation/rollout were invited to make presentations to domain experts. Each project was cross-examined and weighted on several parameters including scale, sustainability, cost-effectiveness, replicability, impact on the targeted section of the society and outcomes. The projects that were found to have made notable difference at the ground were conferred the SKOCH Order-of-Merit. The projects that made exceptional contribution in making governance better were selected to be conferred SKOCH Award in different categories.
In recent years, a very active and visible determination of most stakeholders, be it the Centre, state governments, urban or rural local bodies, to deliver and work towards making governance better, easier and transparent for the people has been noticed. Impressive initiatives have been undertaken across states. Keeping this in mind, good governance is defined in relative terms rather than absolute. Thus, SKOCH study divides the states in categories rather than giving numeric rankings. The states where the projects have performed the best in terms of rankings on different parameters have been classified as ‘STARS’. The states that have done commendable work are next in rankings classified as ‘PERFORMERS’ and the remaining states from where SKOCH received winning nominations are grouped as ‘CATCHING-UP’.
Period Wise Ranking of States – A Comparative
|S/N||State||Rank (April 2017 – Dec 2017)||Rank (April 2014 – March 2017)||Rank (April 2009 – March 2014)|
|25||Andaman & Nicobar||24||–||–|
|28||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||–||27||–|
|30||Jammu & Kashmir||–||27||14|
Based on the overall rankings of the projects, seven best performing states have been designated ‘STAR’ category. These are:
- Tamil Nadu
- Madhya Pradesh
Ten states that have done commendable work have been categorised as ‘PERFORMER’. These are:
- Andhra Pradesh
- Arunachal Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh
- West Bengal
The remaining states from where SKOCH received winning nominations are grouped as ‘CATCHING-UP’. These are:
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands
- Himachal Pradesh
|Education & Skill||8||21|
|Governance & Development||7||27|
|Women & Child Development||4||7|
|Agri & Rural Dev||2||6|
|Finance & Treasuries||1||8|
|Social Justice & Security||1||6|
SKOCH State of Governance study is one of the most comprehensive studies done in the sector. It analyses the findings from different perspectives. Apart from the state rankings, it has also done segment-wise analysis. This includes education, health, transport, finance, agriculture and rural development, labour, municipalities and district administration. This has been done with an objective to highlight the good governance practices undertaken in different sectors. This gives an idea where the policy is working the best.
The study reveals that a number of innovative steps have been taken by the urban local bodies in order to make the service delivery system more efficient and transparent. In the number of SKOCH Order-of-Merit and awards, municipalities stood at number one position. Total 86 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit were conferred to municipalities, the highest sector-wise. The highest number of awards also went to the municipalities, i.e., 34. This included eight Platinum, 11 Gold and 15 Silver Awards.
Maharashtra topped the list in terms of the number of awards conferred to municipalities state-wise. Total SKOCH 17 Orders-of-Merit went to municipalities from Maharashtra, which also got 10 Awards. This included two Platinum, four Gold and four Silver awards. Tamil Nadu stood at second place with 15 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and seven awards. This included three Platinum and four Silver awards. Andhra Pradesh came at number three with six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and three awards. Four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards in the municipalities category went to Delhi. Gujarat bagged six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and three awards, while seven SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award went to Chhattisgarh. Eight SKOCH Orders-of-Merit went to Madhya Pradesh, however, there was no award. Karnataka bagged five SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, while Telangana bagged four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award. Chandigarh bagged two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, while Punjab won two SKOCH Orders-of- Merit and one award. Bihar won four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit, Haryana and Jharkhand two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit each, while Assam and Tripura bagged one SKOCH Order-of-Merit each in Municipal Governance category.
Municipalities in Maharashtra, notably Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Ltd and Thane Municipal Corporation, have taken some path-breaking initiatives to make life of its citizen better and root out corruption. Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Ltd has implemented an Intelligent Transport Management System, which includes automatic vehicle tracking, automatic fare collection, web-portal with basic information and a mobile application (for citizens) for journey planning, grievances, online pass, bus schedules, etc. The real-time tracking of buses has resulted in increased reliability, accountability and transparency in transportation system in the city. In a bid to enhance citizen’s engagement in development works, Pune Municipal Corporation has introduced Participatory Budgeting (PB). Under this initiative, an average of around Rs.30 crore is allocated annually to works suggested by citizens. PB has given citizens a formal forum to engage with the municipality management on public works.
Thane Municipal Corporation has taken multi-pronged, holistic and systematic approach to improve energy efficiency and promote renewable energy. The Corporation is in the process of making Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Hospital a net-zero building. This means all its energy requirements would be met through renewable energy. This will be the first such hospital in the country.
Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation has taken a number of measures to improve service delivery and cleanliness. As part of the Smart City drive, the Corporation has introduced Smart City App and Smart City innovation lab. The Corporation has implemented public-private-partnership mode for waste management. It has introduced steps for processing and disposal of chicken waste.
City Corporation Kalaburagi of Karnataka has implemented technological interventions, which have improved SWM activities, road maintenance, street light maintenance and several other public service delivery systems. Tadipatri Municipal Corporation of Andhra Pradesh has taken innovative steps for infrastructure development and sanitation. Nagar Panchayat Bodhgaya has become the first Nagar Panchayat in Bihar to introduce e-Municipality services. Introduction of e-Governance has increased the efficiency of the various related functions of the municipal body. Patna Municipal Corporation has taken commendable steps for solid waste management.
With a view to increase common people’s participation in sanitation drive, Municipal Corporation Chandigarh has created women functionaries of area level federations as Swachhata Grahi. Raipur Smart City Limited has introduced Intelligent Traffic Management System. Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has increased the trade license fee collections for GHMC through record linkages and advanced data mining using IPIH citizen 360-degree platform. Surat Municipal Corporation has taken steps for installation and promotion of education of rooftop grid connected solar plants through net-metering.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is being increasingly used to make public service delivery system more efficient and transparent. Modern technology is also being used in interaction with business enterprises and communication and exchange of information between different agencies of the government. Such initiatives are broadly categorised as e-Governance. A total of 80 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit was conferred in e-Governance category. Total number of awards to e-Governance category stood at 25. This included six Platinum, 12 Gold and seven Silver category awards.
|12||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||11|
Haryana is placed at second place in e-Governance category with 12 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and five awards. Three awards were conferred in Gold and two in Silver category. CM Window introduced by the government acts as an effective grievance redressal tool. The key policymaking bodies of Haryana from the top CM office and offices of all ministers, secretaries, district magistrates to sub-divisional offices are all connected to this system. Grievances are registered, monitored and addressed online. The Monitoring System has been thoroughly revamped and enhanced with graphical Dashboards for all officers of Haryana with a weekly comparative chart of their progress on redressal. The government has also introduced e-Dashboard for Elections for monitoring and enabling transparency in polling.
With 13 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards, Telangana is the third best performer in e-Governance category. To ensure proper monitoring and implementation of government projects, Department of ITE&C, Government of Telangana, has developed an “Interactive MeeSeva Dashboard”. It provides real-time statistics and analysis of citizen transactions undertaken through MeeSeva channels. Telangana has done complete computerisation of the both Houses of the Legislature, with the objective to bring more transparency in the working of the legislators.
Madhya Pradesh was at fourth place in e-Governance initiatives with four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, both in the Platinum category. Arunachal Pradesh came at fifth position with six SKOCH Ordersof- Merit. West Bengal bagged three SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards; Karnataka got four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award; Kerala got five SKOCH Orders-of- Merit; Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh got one SKOCH Order-of- Merit and one award each.
Governance & Development
In the Governance & Development category 27 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and seven awards were conferred. The awards included three in Platinum, two Gold and two Silver categories. With eight SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, Rajasthan topped the list in Governance & Development category. The state won one award in Platinum and one in Silver category. Rajasthan Skill & Livelihoods Development Corporation, set up by Rajasthan government, has ensured efficient, effective, reliable, transparent and accountable governance in skilling and livelihood section. e-Panchayat initiative implemented in the mission mode has made Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in the state more transparent, accountable and effective. The project aims to automate the functioning of the Panchayats including planning, monitoring, implementation, budgeting, accounting, social audit and delivery of citizen services like issue of certificates, licenses etc.
Telangana won five SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards. One award went in Gold and one in Silver category. In a bid to fill the gap between the government officers and citizens, Telangana has introduced an initiative called Janahitha. Under this initiative, all records are digitised at source itself, eliminating the chances of corruption and irregularity.
With three SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award, West Bengal was at third place. Uttar Pradesh won two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award, while Kerala bagged one SKOCH Order-of-Merit and one award. Gujarat and Punjab, three SKOCH Orders-of-Merit each, while Arunachal Pradesh and Jharkhand were conferred one SKOCH Order-of-Merit each in Governance & Development category.
A total 26 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and 10 awards were conferred in District Administration category, which is largely focused on making governance better for rural India. Four awards were conferred in Platinum, two Gold and four Silver categories.
Punjab topped the list with 10 SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and three awards. One award went in Platinum and two in Silver category. District administration Bathinda has implemented project Navjeevan as one common platform for providing rehabilitation and treatment facilities for disabled. Door-to-door survey was conducted to maintain a record of all the disabled persons in the district. The services are provided through a common digital platform enabling all to access any facility just by applying online. Bathinda District Administration has also launched corneal donation and transplantation movement, with an objective to make the district free from all treatable causes of corneal blindness.
Other notable initiatives by the district administration in Punjab include implementation of e-Office by District Collector Office of Barnala and Deputy Commissioner Office, Ferozpur. District Administration Fazilka has launched an initiative to create clean and sustainable environment through Public Private Partnership and behavioural change through public awareness programme. District Administration Hoshiarpur has introduced Google Toilet Locator as part of cleanliness and sanitation drive.
Uttar Pradesh won two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, both in Platinum category. Maharashtra bagged two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, one Platinum and one Gold. Haryana got two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award in Gold category. Jharkhand secured two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award in Silver category. Gujarat won one SKOCH Order-of-Merit and one award in Silver category. Madhya Pradesh bagged two SKOCH Orders-of- Merit, while Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Telangana bagged one SKOCH Order-of- Merit each.
Education & Skill
A number of initiatives have been taken to improve education system. Notable steps have been taken in the eastern states that are at the bottom of the social and economic development. With six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards, Odisha topped the list in education sector. Odisha bagged one award in Platinum, two in Gold and one in Silver category. Child Tracking System introduced by the Department of School and Mass Education helps maintain a comprehensive database of all children in the age group of 0-14 years. This plays a crucial role in implementation of child centric programmes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Mid-Day Meal scheme. The Department has set up a dedicated School Student Helpline to redress the grievances of children from Class 1 to 10. The redressal mechanism also works as a means to sensitise the parents, teachers, community members and children.
Telangana won four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit, while Sikkim, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh each won one SKOCH Order-of- Merit and one award. Two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit went to Haryana and Himachal Pradesh each, while Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan bagged one SKOCH Order-of- Merit each.
New technologies are being increasingly used to improve healthcare. Rajasthan topped the list in healthcare initiatives. Rajasthan won six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards. Three awards were in Platinum category, while one went in Silver. Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana has brought a substantial improvement in healthcare facilities in the rural areas of Rajasthan. This health insurance scheme provides hassle free cashless treatment and an improved quality of care. It reduces the increasing burden on Government facilities in order to provide quality healthcare to over one crore families, which fall under National Food Security Scheme (NFSS) and National Health Insurance Scheme category. The scheme is implemented through Bhamashah Cards. Rajasthan provides the right to breast milk to newborns in 11 hospitals through a community mother milk bank initiative called Anchal Mother Milk Bank.
With five SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards, Telangana came at the number two position in healthcare initiatives. Telangana won two awards in Silver category. Telangana has taken a number of initiatives to modernise healthcare facilities in the state. Medical and Health Department of Telangana has modernised 23 primary health centres, two community health centres and two area hospitals in Suryapet district of Telangana with corporate hospitals like facilities.
Uttar Pradesh was at the third spot with two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award in Gold category. Punjab won three SKOCH Orders-of- Merit, while Haryana bagged two and Puducherry one SKOCH Order-of-Merit.
With five SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award, Uttar Pradesh topped the list in transport sector initiatives. The country’s most populous state won one award in Gold category for its innovative initiatives in transport sector. Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation provides low cost public transport under the initiative called Rural Connectivity that aims to connect all villages of the state. This entails providing a rural transport system, which is regulated and provides safe connectivity to educational and economic centres operated at a discounted fare to suit the needs of rural populace.
Karnataka bagged four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and stood at the second place in transport sector initiatives. With one SKOCH Order-of- Merit and one award each, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra came at third and fourth place. Madhya Pradesh won the award in Platinum, while Maharashtra got the award in Silver category. Haryana got two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and Punjab won one SKOCH Order-of-Merit in the sector.
Finance & Treasuries
With five SKOCH Orders-of-Merit, Haryana came at top at good governance initiatives in Finance and Treasuries segment. Odisha came at number two position with one SKOCH Order-of-Merit and one award. Odisha bagged an award in Gold category. Kerala and Meghalaya got one SKOCH Order-of-Merit each. Total eight SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award was conferred in finance and treasuries segment.
Finance Department of Haryana has introduced Integrated Financial Management System under which, the annual budget of the state has been redesigned. The state has done away with the traditional plan and non-plan budgeting system. The new system is divided in revenue and capital budgeting. With a view to make payments of government nonjudicial stamp fee easier and safer, Treasuries and Accounts Department of Haryana has introduced an initiative called e-Stamping. In the new system, the user can make payments of the government receipts through the options like net banking, debit card and credit cards.
Directorate of Treasuries and Inspection, Government of Odisha, provides electronic receipt and disbursement through Integrated Financial Management System. This comprehensive electronic system facilitates capture of all financial activities of the State Government.
Agriculture & Rural Development
With two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award, Haryana topped the Agriculture and Rural Development segment. Haryana won the award in Silver category. Total six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards were conferred in this segment. Maharashtra came at the second spot with one SKOCH Order-of- Merit and one award. Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal bagged one SKOCH Order-of-Merit each.
Haryana State Rural Livelihoods Mission has taken innovative steps for poverty alleviation and rural development under the aegis of Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM).
It promotes women’s Self Help Groups (SHGs) by providing financial aid through bank credit, upgrading skills of the community, capacity building and institution building enabling to enhance and taking up new livelihood entitlements.
Online Zilla Parishad Teachers’ Transfer portal introduced by Rural Development and Water Conservation Department of Maharashtra has revolutionised the transfer process for Zilla Parishad teachers by establishing a transparent accessible and efficient process for transfer.
Social Justice & Security
Total six SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award was conferred in Social Justice and Securities segment. Andhra Pradesh topped the list one SKOCH Order-of-Merit and one award. Himachal Pradesh bagged two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit. Haryana, Odisha and Rajasthan got one SKOCH Order-of-Merit each in this segment.
Social Welfare Department of Andhra Pradesh has created a groundbreaking initiative for the welfare of the marginalised section of the society under the initiative called JnanaBhumi. This is a one-stop shop for the education ecosystem, built through a rigorous process of re-engineering, synergistic approach, integrating best practices and latest technology. JnanaBhumi e-Enables the student lifecycle and educational institutions and encapsulates the vision of the government in ushering the state into a Knowledge Economy through a seamless, paperless, high fidelity and scalable platform that drives equal and inclusive opportunity for all.
Department of Social Justice and Empowerment of Himachal Pradesh has introduced Postal Savings Accounts System for disbursement of Social Security Pension with an intention to bring transparency and efficiency in delivery mechanism.
Women & Child Development
Seven SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards were conferred in Women & Child Development segment. One award was conferred in Platinum, while three awards went in Silver category. Madhya Pradesh topped the list with two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and two awards. One award went in Platinum, while the other was in Silver category.
With a view to enhance safety and security of women, Madhya Pradesh’s Directorate of Women Empowerment has launched Safe City programme. It has covered the majority of community women who face day-to-day safety problem. It has also covered school and college students. A campaign has been launched to sensitise police and public transportation staff on the safety of women. The Directorate has also introduced a one-stop centre called ‘Sakhi’ that provides immediate relief to women facing violence by accessing legal aid, health, police support and sociopsycho counselling services under one roof.
Chhattisgarh bagged two SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and one award in Silver category. Department of Women and Child Development of Chhattisgarh has introduced Shuchita Yojana that focuses on an easy access to low cost and hygienic sanitary napkin and awareness amongst adolescent girls by installation of Sanitary Napkin Vending Machines and Incinerator in the schools located in the remote districts of the state.
The incinerator further provides environment friendly disposals of used napkins. Under Sanskar Abhiyan initiative, Chhattisgarh’s Department of Women & Child Development provide quality Early Childhood Care and Education to the children below six years of age.
Four SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and four awards were conferred in Labour category. West Bengal bagged three SKOCH Orders-of-Merit and three awards, while Arunachal Pradesh got one SKOCH Order-of-Merit and one award. West Bengal bagged two awards in Platinum category and one in Gold category. Arunachal Pradesh won one award in Silver category.
West Bengal has launched a number of social security schemes for the workers of the unorganised sector aimed at providing these workers with a degree of income security when faced with the contingencies of old age, survivorship, incapacity, disability, bringing up children, gender disparity, curative or preventive medical care and empowerment. The government ensures security and welfare of the workers in the unorganised sector through a single comprehensive initiative called Samajik Suraksha Yojana.
The scheme covers nearly one crore workers involved in unorganised sector in the state. The scheme provides provident fund, life and disability insurance coverage and health and family welfare facilities to the workers at a nominal cost. Labour Department of West Bengal has undertaken massive procedural reforms and process re-engineering with respect to the inspections carried out under various Labour Laws, without compromising on the safety and security of the workers. The Labour Department has allowed Joint/Synchronised inspections under the Labour Laws to eradicate multiplicity of inspections. The reports of inspections are being submitted online on real-time basis.