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State of Governance 2021 Report Card

SKOCH State of Governance 2021 – Full Report

Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Odisha are #1, #2 and #3 for SKOCH State of Governance 2021.

By Team Inclusion

SoG21
10 March, 2022 State of Governance
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State Rankings

Highlights

  • Andhra Pradesh retains number one position in the SKOCH State of Governance for the second consecutive year.
  • Odisha enters top 5 club for the first time.
  • Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir (UT) and Chhattisgarh have made significant improvement in their rankings.
  • Tamil Nadu slipped from the top 10 states for the first time in three years.

Ranking Categories

  • States are divided in four categories – Star, Performer, Catching-up and Other States.
  • Top five best ranked states are categorised as STARS.
  • The next five best ranked states are categorised as PERFORMERS.
  • Top five states that are below the rank of Performers are categorised as CATCHING-UP
  • The states that have not managed to find a place in STARS, PERFORMERS and CATCHING-UP categories are grouped as ‘Other States’.

STARS

Top 5 best ranked states are categorised as STARS. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra are the STAR states in 2021.

Andhra Pradesh: Andhra Pradesh maintained numero uno position for the second year in a row. Andhra Pradesh has been a STAR performer for the fourth consecutive year. The state was ranked at the second position in 2018. It slipped to the fourth position in 2019. However, Andhra Pradesh showed splendid performance in 2020 acquiring the number one position. The state maintained its number one position in 2021 as well.

West Bengal: West Bengal climbed one step to acquire the second position in SKOCH State of Governance 2021. The state has been among the top 3 performers for the past four consecutive years. West Bengal was ranked at number one state in 2018. It slipped to the third position in 2019 and continued in that position in 2020 as well.

Odisha: Odisha entered the top five club for the first time. The state has improved its ranking consistently over the years. Odisha was ranked at the 13th position in 2018. It improved its ranking to the 10th position in 2019. In 2020, it climbed to 8th position. In 2021, Odisha is ranked at the 3rd position. Odisha has acquired the ‘STAR’ tag for the first time.

Gujarat: Gujarat has maintained its position among the STAR states for the past several years. It has consistently been among the top 5 ranked states. However, there has been volatility in its rank at the top. Gujarat was ranked at the number one position in 2019. It slipped to the second position in 2020 and slipped further to the fourth position in 2021. In 2018, Gujarat was ranked at the fifth position.

Maharashtra: Maharashtra regained its position in the top five. In 2020, Maharashtra had slipped to the seventh position from the second position achieved in 2019. In 2021, Maharashtra climbed two spot to acquire the fifth position.

PERFORMERS

The states that are ranked from the sixth to the 10th position are categorised as PERFORMERS.

Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Assam and Himachal Pradesh have secured their positions in PERFORMERS category.

Telangana: Telangana has significantly improved its ranking. It climbed to the sixth position in 2021 from the ninth position in 2020.

Uttar Pradesh: Uttar Pradesh has maintained its position in the top 10. However, it has slipped one place to the seventh position in 2021 from the sixth position achieved in both 2020 and 2019. Uttar Pradesh’s best performance was in 2018 when it had acquired the second position.

Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh slipped to the eighth position in 2021 from the fifth position in 2020. The state had made a huge improvement in its ranking in 2020 climbing to the fifth position from the 11th position in 2019. However, it could not maintain its tempo in 2021 and suffered a loss of three positions. Madhya Pradesh was ranked at the 12th position in 2018.

Assam: Assam made a massive gain in its ranking. It climbed 14 spot to acquire the ninth position in 2021 from the 23rd position in 2020. Assam’s best performance was in 2019 when it secured the seventh position. In 2018, Assam was ranked at the 10th position.

Himachal Pradesh: Himachal Pradesh moved to the top 10 ranking states for the first time in four years. Himachal Pradesh climbed six spots to secure the 10th position in 2021 from the 16th position in 2020. In 2019, Himachal Pradesh was placed at the 14th position. It had also made massive gains in 2019 climbing to the 14th position from the 27th position in 2018. 

CATCHING-UP

Five top ranked states/UTs below the PERFORMERS category are categorised as ‘CATCHING-UP’.

Five states/UTs that have secured a place in CATCHING-UP category in SKOCH State of Governance 2021 are: Bihar, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir (UT), Chhattisgarh and Rajasthan.

Four of the five states in the CATCHING-UP category have improved their ranking during the year, while one state Bihar has maintained its position at the same level as achieved in 2020.

Bihar: Bihar maintained its position as the best performer in CATCHING-UP category. Bihar was placed at the 11th position in 2020 and it maintained that position in 2021 as well. Bihar has consistently improved its rank. In 2018, Bihar was placed at the 19th position. It improved its standing to the 15th position in 2019 and further to the 11th position in 2020.

Haryana: Haryana climbed two places to secure the 12th position in SKOCH State of Governance 2021 from the 14th position in 2020. There has been consistent improvement in Haryana’s ranking in the past four year. Haryana was ranked at the 20th position in 2018. It rose to the 17th position in 2019 and further to the 14th position in 2020.

Jammu & Kashmir (UT): Jammu & Kashmir (UT) registered massive improvement in its ranking. It rose to the 13th position in 2021 from the 25th position in 2020, climbing up 12 positions during the year.

Chhattisgarh: Chhattisgarh climbed seven spots to reach the 14th position in 2021 from the 21st position secured in 2020. In 2019, Chhattisgarh was placed at the 23rd position. So there has been a continuous improvement in Chhattisgarh raking over the past three years.

Rajasthan: Rajasthan climbed to the 15th position in 2021 from the 18th position in 2020, making a gain of three positions during the year. Rajasthan was among the top performing states in 2018 when it was placed at the 6th position. However, in 2019 it slipped to the 18th position and continued in the same position in 2020. In 2021, Rajasthan recorded a gain of three positions.

OTHER STATES

The states and UTs that failed to secure a place in STARS, PERFORMERS and CATCHING-UP categories are classified as ‘OTHER STATES’.

The states/UTs that have improved their ranking during the year include: Manipur, Nagaland, Chandigarh (UT), Goa, and Daman and Diu.

The states/UTs that have slipped from their ranking in the previous year include: Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Sikkim.

Karnataka: Karnataka has witnessed volatility in its ranking in the last four years. Karnataka was ranked at the 4th position in 2018. It slipped to the 12th position in 2019. Karnataka improved its ranking in 2020 climbing to the 10th position. In SKOCH State of Governance 2021, it slipped to the 16th position, a loss of 6 ranks during the year.

Tamil Nadu: Tamil Nadu slipped to the 17th position in 2021 from the fourth position in 2020. This is Tamil Nadu’s worst performance in the last four years. Tamil Nadu was ranked at the 11th position in 2018. It improved its ranking in 2019 rising to the 8th position. In 2020, Tamil Nadu showed its best performance joining the STAR club. It was ranked at the 4th position in 2020.

Manipur: Manipur climbed to the 18th position in SKOCH State of Governance 2021 from 29th position recorded in 2020. Manipur witnessed a gain of 11 ranks during the year. However, the performance of Manipur in 2021 remained far below its potential. The best performance of Manipur was recorded in 2019, when it secured the 5th position, gaining a place in the STAR club.

Kerala: Kerala slipped four spots to the 19th position in 2021 from 15th position recorded in 2020.

Punjab: Punjab slipped to the 20th position in 2021 from the 12th position in 2020, a loss of eight places during the year. This is Punjab’s worst performance in the last four year. In 2018, Punjab secured a place in top 10. It was ranked at the 9th position in 2018. Punjab slipped to the 13th position in 2019. However, it climbed one spot to reach 12th position in 2020.

Uttarakhand: Uttarakhand slipped to the 21st position in 2021 from the 13th position in 2020, a loss of 8 ranks in a year. Uttarakhand showed its best performance in 2018 securing the seventh position. The state slipped to the 16th position in 2019, but improved its ranking to the 13th position in 2020.

Delhi: Delhi fell five spots to the 22nd position in 2021 from the 17th position secured in 2020. Delhi was placed at the 21st position in 2019.

Jharkhand: Jharkhand fell to the 23rd position in 2021 from the 19th position in the previous two years. Jharkhand secured the 15th position in 2018. In 2019, it slipped to the 19th position and maintained the same position in 2020. However, in 2021, Jharkhand slipped four ranks to the 23rd position.

Nagaland: Nagaland improved its ranking to the 24th position in 2021 from the 28th position in 2020, a gain of four ranks in the year. The best performance of Nagaland was in 2018, when it secured the 16th position in overall SKOCH State of Governance. It slipped to the 20th position in 2019 and further to the 28th position in 2020.

Chandigarh (UT): Chandigarh (UT) climbed one place to secure the 25th position in SKOCH State of Governance 2021. Chandigarh was placed at the 26th position in 2020.

Goa: Goa climbed five spots to reach the 25th position in 2021 from the 30th position in 2020. In three out of the past four years, Goa was placed at the 25th position. In 2018, Goa was placed at the 25th position. It retained that same position in 2019.

Arunachal Pradesh: Arunachal Pradesh slipped six ranks to the 26th position in 2021 from the 20th position in 2020. Arunachal Pradesh was placed at the 24th position in 2018. It improved its rank to the 22nd position in 2019 and further to the 20th position in 2020. However, in 2021, it suffered a loss of six places, slipping to the 26th position.

Tripura: Tripura slipped to the 27th position in 2021 from the 24th position secured in 2020, posting a loss of three ranks during the year.

Mizoram: Mizoram secured the 28th position in SKOCH State of Governance 2021.

Daman and Diu: Daman and Diu improved its ranking by one spot to reach the 29th position in 2021 from the 30th position secured in 2020.

Sikkim: Sikkim fell to the 29th position in 2021 from the 27th position secured in 2020, suffering a loss of two ranks.

Shift in Priorities of STAR States

Agriculture, Ease of Doing Business, Power & Energy, Social Justice & Security and Water gained primacy in 2021.

General Administration, health, district governance, police & safety and municipal governance take back seats.

Priorities of Star States from 2019-2021 Fig.1
Priorities of Star States from 2019-2021 Fig. 2

Sectors with Increased Focus

Agriculture: The share of agriculture in the total good governance initiatives taken by STAR states rose to 5.2 per cent in 2021 from 1.3 per cent in 2020. In 2019, the share of agriculture in total good governance initiatives taken in STAR states stood at 4.7 per cent.

Ease of Doing Business: A number of innovative initiatives were taken in STAR states to improve their ranking on ease of doing business. Giving importance to ease of doing business amid pandemic is particularly important. In 2020, only 1 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in STAR states were related to ease of doing business. In 2021, this rose to 5.6 per cent.

Water: STAR states have been giving increasing importance to the governance initiatives related to water. In 2019, only 0.9 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in STAR states were related to water. This rose to 4 per cent in 2020 and increased further to 5.2 per cent in 2021.

Power & Energy: The good governance initiatives related to power and energy taken in STAR states during 2021 rose to 4.8 per cent from 3 per cent in 2020 and 3.8 per cent recorded in 2019.

Social Justice & Security: The good governance initiatives related to social justice and security gained primacy in STAR states during the COVID pandemic time. 2.8 per cent of the total goods governance initiatives taken in STAR states during 2021 were related to social justice and security. No initiative related to this sector was selected for SKOCH State of Governance report ranking in 2020 and 2019.

Education: The good governance initiatives related to education in STAR states rose to 2.4 per cent in 2021 from 0.3 per cent in 2020. However, it remained lower when compared with the pre-pandemic year 2019, when 3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in the STAR states were related to education.

Urban Development: There has been less focus on urban development related governance initiatives during COVID time when compared with the pre-COVID period. However, in 2021, the good governance initiatives related to urban development rose to 2.4 per cent from 1.0 per cent in 2020. In 2019, it stood substantially higher at 4.3 per cent.

Sectors with Less Focus

General Administration: The good governance initiatives related to general administration declined in almost all states during the COVID pandemic. In 2019, 8.5 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in STAR states were related to the general administration. This declined sharply to 1.7 per cent in 2020 and fell further to 1.6 per cent in 2021.

Health: Interestingly, innovation related to the health sector also declined in STAR states. Only 0.4 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in STAR states during 2021 were related to health. In 2020, it stood at 2.7 per cent. Health was among the major focus areas among STAR states in 2019 when it accounted for 13.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives.

District Governance: In the first year of the COVID pandemic the maximum focus in the STAR states was on district administration. It declined in 2021 but remained substantially higher from the pre-pandemic period. In 2020, 28.5 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in STAR states were related to district governance. This declined to 13.3 per cent in 2021. In the pre-pandemic year 2019, only 6.8 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in the STAR states were related to the district governance.

Police & Safety: Policy & safety remain among the major focus areas of governance in STAR states. However, the initiatives taken in 2021 were substantially lower than 2020. In 2020, the first year of the COVID pandemic, 24.5 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in STAR states were related to police and safety. This declined to 13.7 per cent in 2021. Though police and safety related good governance initiatives declined in 2021 when compared with 2020, it remained substantially higher when compared with 2019, the pre-pandemic year.

Municipal Governance: Good governance initiatives related to municipal governance have declined consistently over the years. In 2019, 17.4 per cent of the total goods governance initiatives in STAR states were related to municipal governance. This declined to 11.7 per cent in 2020 and fell further to 8.4 per cent in 2021.

e-Governance: The good governance initiatives related to e-Governance in STAR states fell to 4 per cent in 2021 from 5.7 per cent in 2020 and 13.2 per cent recorded in 2019.

Sanitation: There has been increased focus on good governance initiatives related to sanitation during COVID pandemic period. The good governance initiatives related to sanitation in STAR states fell to 3.2 per cent in 2021 from 4.4 per cent in 2020. However, it remained substantially higher than 2019, when only 2.1 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to sanitation.     

Shift in Priorities of PERFORMER States

Police & Safety, Power & Energy, Urban Development, Finance & Revenue and Ease of Doing Business gained primacy in PERFORMER states during 2021.

The sectors that witnessed declined focus include: General Administration, health, municipal governance, sanitation and e-Governance.

Priorities of Performer States from 2019-2021 Fig. 1
Priorities of Performer States from 2019-2021 Fig. 2

Sectors with Increased Focus

Police & Safety: The second highest number of good governance initiatives taken in PERFORMER category states in 2021 was related to police and safety. It accounted for 18.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives. In 2020, only 4.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in PERFORMER category state were related to police and safety. It stood at 13.3 per cent in 2019.

Power & Energy: The good governance initiatives related to power and energy in PERFORMER category states rose to 5.4 per cent in 2021 from 3.4 per cent in 2020 and 3.1 per cent of the total initiatives recorded in 2019.

Ease of Doing Business: A substantial number of good governance initiatives in the PERFORMER category states in 2021 were related to ease of doing business. Of the total good governance initiatives in the PERFORMER states 5.4 per cent were related to ease of doing business. No initiative in this category was selected for SKOCH State of Governance in 2020 and 2019.

Finance & Revenue: Finance and revenue got good focus among PERFORMER category states in 2021. Of the total good governance initiatives taken in 2021, 3.9 per cent were related to finance and revenue. No finance and revenue related initiative was selected in the previous two years.

Urban Development: PERFORMER category states took a substantial number of good governance initiatives related to urban development during the COVID pandemic. In 2020, 2.9 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in the PERFORMER category states were related to urban development. It rose to 3.9 per cent in 2021. No initiative from this category was recorded in 2019.

Sectors with Less Focus

District Governance: The district governance got primacy during the COVID pandemic period. More than half of the good governance initiatives taken in the PERFORMER category states in 2020 were related to the district governance. Although it remained a major focus area in 2021 as well, the number of and proportion of initiatives declined. In 2020, more than half (54.6 per cent) of the total good governance initiatives in the PERFORMER category states were related to the district governance. It declined to 24.8 per cent in 2021. Despite the decline, it remained much higher than the pre-COVID period. In 2019, only 9.2 per cent of the total initiatives were related to the district governance.

Municipal Governance: The focus in the PERFORMER category states has gradually shifted away from municipal governance. In 2019, the highest focus in the PERFORMER category states was on municipal governance. It stood at 18.4 per cent in 2019. The share of municipal governance in total good governance initiatives fell to 16.7 per cent in 2020 and declined sharply to 7.8 per cent in 2021.

Sanitation: Sanitation has taken the back seat in the COVID pandemic period. In 2019, 15.3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in PERFORMER category states were related to sanitation. This fell to 2.9 per cent in 2020. No sanitation related initiative was selected for SKOCH State of Governance 2021.

General Administration: The general administration took the back seat at almost all levels of governance during the COVID period. The share of general administration in total good governance initiatives taken in 2020 fell to 1.7 per cent from 6.1 per cent in 2019. No general administration related initiative was selected in 2021.

Shift in Priorities of CATCHING-UP States

e-Governance, Health, Agriculture, Finance & Revenue, Police & Safety, Power & Energy, Municipal Governance and Social Justice & Security gained primacy in CATCHING-UP states during 2021.

The sectors that witnessed declined focus include: District Governance, General Administration, Education, Sanitation, Transport, Urban Development, Water and Women & Child Development.

Priorities of Catching Up States from 2019-2021 Fig.1
Priorities of Catching Up States from 2019-2021 Fig. 2

Sectors with Increased Focus

e-Governance: CATCHING-UP category states put increased focus on electronic governance during 2021. The percentage of e-Governance in total good governance initiatives in CATCHING-UP category states rose to 7.8 per cent in 2021 from 3.9 per cent in 2020. However, it remained lower than the pre-COVID year. In 2019, e-Governance accounted for 9.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives.

Health: Out of the last three years, the best focus on the health sector was in 2021. Health accounted for 4.8 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2019. It fell to 2.6 per cent in 2020. However, in 2021, it rose to 6.3 per cent.

Agriculture: Despite huge disruptions in the economy due to the COVID lockdowns and restrictions, the agriculture sector maintained positive growth. The growth of the farm sector was aided by innovative governance measures. 3.1 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2021 in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to agriculture. In 2020, it was just 1.3 per cent. In 2019, no agriculture related governance initiative was selected for SKOCH State of Governance study.

Finance & Revenue: A substantial number of good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states during 2021 were related to finance and revenue. 4.7 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2021 were related to finance and revenue. No finance and revenue related governance initiatives were recorded in the CATCHING-UP category states in 2020 and 2019.

Police & Safety: The share of Police & Safety in total good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states rose to 4.7 per cent in 2021 as against 3.9 per cent in 2020 and 3.6 per cent in 2019.

Power & Energy: Power & Energy accounted for 6.3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states during 2021. In 2019, 3.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to power and energy. In 2020, no initiative was selected from this category.

Municipal Governance: COVID pandemic has led to significant decline in municipal governance related initiatives. In 2019, the pre-COVID year, one in every three good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to Municipal Governance. It fell drastically in 2020, the first year of COVID pandemic. In 2020, only 5.3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to municipal governance. However, it rose to 6.3 per cent in 2021.

Social Justice & Security: The CATCHING-UP category states gave good attention to social justice and security. In 2021, 1.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING –UP category states were related to social justice and security. In the previous two years no social justice and security related projects were selected for State of Governance ranking.

Sectors with Less Focus

District Governance: The biggest focus of good governance initiatives during the COVID pandemic has been related to district governance. In 2019, only 8.4 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to district governance. This surged to 60.5 per cent in 2020. However, in 2021 it fell to 32.8 per cent. Though, the proportion of district governance initiatives in 2021 was sharply lower when compared with 2020, in comparison with 2019 it is substantially higher.

General Administration: The initiatives related to the general administration fell to 1.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in 2021 from 3.9 per cent in 2020. In the pre-COVID year of 2019, 4.8 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to the general administration.

Education: Education has been among the worst affected sectors during the COVID pandemic. No education related good governance initiatives were recorded for SKOCH State of Governance ranking from the CATCHING-UP category states in 2021. In 2020, it fell to 2.6 per cent from 4.8 per cent recorded in 2019.

Sanitation: Sanitation related good governance initiatives have declined gradually over the past three years. In 2019, 4.8 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in the CATCHING-UP category states were related to sanitation. It fell to 2.6 per cent in 2020 and declined further to 1.6 per cent in 2021.

Transport: Transport related good governance initiatives in the CATCHING-UP category states declined from 3.6 per cent in 2019 to 2.6 per cent in 2020 and it declined further to 1.6 per cent in 2021.

Urban Development: Urban Development related good governance initiatives in the CATCHING-UP category states fell to 2.6 per cent in 2020 from 4.8 per cent in 2019. In 2021, no urban development related good governance initiative was recorded.

Water: Water related good governance initiatives accounted for 2.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in the CATCHING-UP category states in 2020. It fell to 1.6 per cent in 2021.

Women & Child Development: Women and child development related initiatives accounted for 3.6 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in CATCHING-UP category states in 2019. It fell to 1.3 per cent in 2020. No women and child development related initiative was recorded in 2021.

Shift in Priorities of States (overall)

Agriculture, Ease of Doing Business, Finance & Revenue, Power & Energy, Social Justice & Security, Urban Development and Water gained primacy in 2021.

General Administration, e-Governance, Health, District Governance, Municipal Governance, Sanitation and Transport witnessed decline in focus during 2021.

Priorities of States Overall from 2019-2021 Fig. 1
Priorities of States Overall from 2019-2021 Fig. 2

Sectors with Increased Focus

Agriculture: Agriculture witnessed good innovative measures during the COVID pandemic period. The share of agriculture in the total good governance initiatives taken by the states rose to 3.2 per cent in 2021 from 1.17 per cent in 2020.

Ease of Doing Business: It is interesting to see that the states gave adequate attention to ease of doing business even during the COVID pandemic period. In 2020, only 0.7 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to ease of doing business. This surged to 4.3 per cent in 2021.

Finance & Revenue: In 2021, 2.8 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to finance and revenue. In 2019 and 2020 it was less than 1 per cent.

Power & Energy: There was a sharp increase in good governance related initiatives in 2021. In 2019, 3.3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to power and energy. It declined to 2.2 per cent in 2020. However, the share of power and energy in the total good governance initiatives rose to 5.7 per cent in 2021.

Social Justice & Security: Out of the total good governance initiatives taken by the states 1.7 per cent was related to social justice and security in 2021. No social justice and security related initiative was selected for SKOCH State of Governance ranking in 2020 or 2019.

Urban Development: Urban development accounted for 2.3 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in 2021. No urban development related initiative was selected for SKOCH State of Governance ranking in 2020 or 2019.   

Water: Water related initiatives have increased over the years. In 2019, only 0.9 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to water. In 2020, it rose to 3.1 per cent and it increased further to 3.8 per cent in 2021.

Sectors with Less Focus

General Administration: There has been a decline in good governance initiatives related to general administration in all categories of states during the COVID pandemic period. In 2019, a pre-COVID pandemic year, 7.9 per cent of the total good governance initiatives were related to general administration. It declined to 2.8 per cent in 2020 and it fell further to 1.7 per cent in 2021.

e-Governance: There has been a sharp decline in e-Governance related initiatives. 13.2 per cent of the total good governance initiatives taken in 2019 were related to e-Governance. It declined to 5.9 per cent in 2020 and fell further to 4.2 per cent in 2021.

Health: Health related initiatives accounted for 11.7 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2019. It fell to 4.3 per cent in 2020 and declined further to 3.2 per cent in 2021.

District Governance: The biggest focus of good governance initiatives during the COVID pandemic has been related to district governance. In 2019, only 9.2 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in states were related to district governance. This rose to 40.3 per cent in 2020. In 2021, it declined to 20.8 per cent. Though, the proportion of district governance initiatives in 2021 was sharply lower when compared with 2020, in comparison with 2019 it is substantially higher.

Municipal Governance: In 2019, the highest number of good governance initiatives was related to municipal governance. It accounted for 19 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2019. In 2020, it declined to 11.3 per cent and it fell further to 8.7 per cent in 2021.

Sanitation: Sanitation accounted for 4.4 per cent of the total good governance initiatives in 2019. It fell to 3.8 per cent in 2020 and declined further to 2.5 per cent in 2021.

Transport: There was a marginal decline in transport related good governance initiatives in 2021. It fell to 2.6 per cent in 2021 from 3.3 per cent recorded in the previous two years.

SKOCH State of Governance Methodology

  • Well performing projects are submitted by States for evaluation.
  • First round of vetting and shortlisting is done by our research analysts.
  • Shortlisted projects go through primary evaluation by a jury of three domain experts.
  • Overall impact is measured for new projects whereas ongoing projects are evaluated on incremental improvement.
  • At the same time a peer evaluation is carried out by those doing similar projects.
  • Based on an average score, a cut off is decided and a second shortlist derived.
  • Field research is done to evaluate impact through benefits received by intended targets.
  • These projects are put to a popular vote by registered users only on our website.
  • Based on cut-off, the projects qualify for semi-final Order of Merit.
  • Merit listed projects garner expert votes through exhibition and live polls to get an eventual score.
  • Each project therefore gets a comprehensive score. Total of these decide state and sectoral performances.
  • Top performers are STARS, states with commendable work are PERFORMERS, states that are making good efforts are CATCHING UP. Rest are others.
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